expose the lower limbs – 
walk – and inspect the gait – 
wall on heels and toes and squat 
 
Inspection – 
swelling, scars, skin changes – erythema, VV ulcers 
no wasting – 
deformity – including varus/ vulgas changes 
  no cllocity, corns , sussage toes + foot arches 
 
Then get the patient on bed – look for fixed flesion deformity – 
 
Palpation – 
Temperature 
Joint or muscle tenderness
Pulses, tibial tubarocity, Bursas, bakers cyst, 
 
Patella tap test – push patells for effushin
Bulge test – for large effusion 
ROM – 
   Active – track patella  – 
   passive with one hand on patella 
   check for crepitus and flexion and extension 
 
Special tests – 
      • Patella Apprehension / patella subluxation – ( push it sideways ) 
      • Medial and lateral colaterals 
      • Anterior and posterior draw tests 
      • MuMarray test – for meniscal tear – with pushing extend and flex the knee 
turn the patient on belly – 
examine for bakers cyst – 
      • Apleys grinding test – for meniscal tear  test
 
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